Application of Inorganic-organic Perovskite Materials in New Type Thin Film Solar Cells

In recent years, the application of organic metal halides with the perovskite crystal form represented by CH3NH3PbI3 has attracted a wide range of research interests in the field of optoelectronics.

As a new semiconductor photoelectric conversion material, it has a high extinction coefficient (105 cm-1), long carrier lifetime (~μs), low defect state concentration, low exciton binding energy, and low cost solvent preparation, etc. advantage. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of thin-film solar cells (perovskite solar cells) based on this type of material has exceeded 22%, which exceeds that of polycrystalline silicon solar cells and has a good application prospect. At the same time, the material has shown good performance in photoelectric detection, luminescence, high-energy ray detection and nonlinear optics, and has become a research hotspot in the fields of photoelectric physics, materials (devices) physics and chemistry. Chinese researchers have made positive contributions to the efficient exploration and application of hole-free material devices, new materials, physical and chemical process control of material preparation, large-area device development, device stability, and high-efficiency light emission.

Based on the research status of perovskite thin-film batteries, the research team led by Professor Meng Qingbo of the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences recently published the title “Inorganic-organic halide perovskites for new photovoltaic technology” in the National Science Review (2017). The dissertation reviews and discusses the development of such materials and devices from the perovskite materials' structural features, material preparation techniques, and key physical properties.

This paper focuses on the discussion and summarization of the key physical properties of perovskite materials such as semiconductor doping, junction electric field, defect states, ion migration, and induced semiconductor property evolution. Theoretical studies have shown that self-doping of ternary perovskite materials (such as atom deletions, gaps and substitutions) can induce p-type or n-type carriers. At present, it has been possible to control the perovskite carrier type by controlling the physicochemical process of thin film deposition. For example, the control of the concentration of lead iodine in the dimethylamine was achieved in a two-step process. In addition, p-type carriers desired for heterojunction cells can also be obtained by heteroatom doping. Based on the ubiquitous p-type doping of this type of material, unilateral heterojunctions existing between the TiO2/perovskite light-absorbing layers can be observed in n-TiO2/perovskite light-absorbing/hole-transport layer-structured devices. The depletion zone is mainly distributed within the perovskite layer. No knot was observed between the perovskite light-absorbing/hole-transporting layers. This shows that the perovskite battery is more likely to be a single heterojunction battery than the pin-type battery traditionally considered. With regard to the deep defect energy levels of this type of material, various methods have been used to measure the results, and it has been shown that the defect state concentration of the perovskite thin film material prepared by this low-temperature solution method can be as low as 1015 cm-3. Long carrier lifetime. Recently, theoretical and experimental measurements have found significant ion migration within this class of materials, and ion migration can lead to material redistribution and redistribution of defect states, thereby affecting the optoelectronic process and stability of the device.

The understanding of these key physical properties is of great significance for the improvement of the performance of perovskite devices and the development of new applications. It is also the basis for correctly evaluating and understanding the core issues of perovskite devices. For the perovskite device, the lower stability is one of the bottlenecks for its further development, and the stability of the physical properties is its key point and deserves deep attention.

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