Humans know the ten most tough materials, the most expensive materials, the highest melting point materials!

Ten of the toughest materials known to man 1. Graphene Graphene 1510538234865369.jpg
Introduction: Graphene is a honeycomb two-dimensional planar film formed by sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms. It is a single-layer sheet structure peeled off from graphite and is the thinnest new material known. The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity are 125 GPa and 1.1 TPa, respectively, and the strength is 100 times that of ordinary steel. The bag made of graphene can withstand a weight of about 2 tons, which is the most strong material known at present. Development trend: After the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics, the global graphene patent application began to increase dramatically, and it is expected to be applied in many fields such as electronics, energy storage, catalysts, sensors, photoelectric transparent films, super-composites and biomedical applications. The main research companies: Graphene Technologies, GrapheneIndustries, XG Sciences, Dafu Technology, Dongxu Optoelectronics, China Baoan, ST-ene carbon, Bao Tailong, Fangda carbon and so on. 2. Carbon Nanotube Carbon Nanotube 1510538268251305.gif Introduction: Carbon nanotubes are one-dimensional quantum materials with hexagonal carbon atoms forming several layers to dozens of coaxial tubes. They can be seen as graphene sheets curled according to graphene sheets. The number of layers can be divided into: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Carbon nanotubes have good mechanical properties, tensile strength of 50 ~ 200GPa, 100 times that of steel, density is only 1 / 6 of steel, at least an order of magnitude higher than conventional graphite fibers; its elastic modulus can reach 1TPa, It is equivalent to the elastic modulus of diamond, which is about 5 times that of steel. Trends: Since the discovery in the 1990s, carbon nanotube-related industries have flourished and are used in the manufacture of composite materials and films, transparent conductors, thermal interfaces, body armor, wind turbine blades, functional device electrodes and catalyst carriers. Major research companies: Bayer Materials Science AG, Toray Industries Inc., Unidym. Inc., Shenzhen Nanoport Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Uniwan Technology Co., Ltd., Shandong Dazhan Carbon Nanotube Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Betray New Energy Materials Co., Ltd. Company, etc. 3. Metallic Glass 1510538306119899.jpg
Introduction: Metallic glass, also known as amorphous metal, usually alloy, has an amorphous structure and a glassy structure. This dual structure determines its possession of crystalline metals and many unmatched properties of glass, such as good electrical conductivity. High strength, high elasticity, more wear and corrosion. The strength of metallic glass is higher than that of steel and its hardness exceeds that of high hardness tool steel. Development trend: super strong, elastic and magnetic characteristics, and relatively large, solid glass without crystallizing at high temperatures, mainly in the aerospace field and military weapons. Major research companies and institutions: Glassimetal Technology Inc., Institute of Metal Materials, Tohoku University, California, California Institute of Technology. 4. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fiber UHMWPE 1510538330136582.jpg
Introduction: Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber (UHMWPE) is a fiber spun from polyethylene with a molecular weight of 1 million to 5 million. It is the world's highest strength and lightest weight fiber, and its strength is 15 times higher than that of steel wire. , but very light, up to 40% lighter than aramid and other materials. Trends: from ropes, tethers and ropes to life-protection applications, high-performance textiles, composites, laminates, and a wide range of applications. The annual demand for UHMWPE in the world in the next 5 and 10 years will be 60,000 tons and 100,000 tons respectively. The main research companies are: DSM in the Netherlands, Honeywell in the United States, Mitsui Chemicals in Japan, Shanghai Sirui Polymer Technology Co., Ltd., Hunan Zhongtai Special Equipment Co., Ltd., Ningbo Dacheng New Materials Co., Ltd., etc. 5. Boron Nitride Nanotubes 1510538354879741.jpg
Introduction: Boron nitride, like carbon, can form a monoatomic layer sheet, which can be crimped to form nanotubes. The strength of boron nitride nanotubes is comparable to that of carbon nanotubes, but its real advantage comes from its ability to adhere to polymer materials when combined with polymeric materials. The strength of the boron nitride nanotube material is higher than that of the carbon nanotube, about 30% higher than the PMMA interface, and about 20% higher than the epoxy resin. Trends: Boron nitride nanotubes have optical properties, excellent mechanical and thermal conductivity, and can withstand high temperatures. They also absorb neutron radiation and become an effective additive for mechanical or thermal strengthening of polymers, ceramics and metal composites. . Additional applications for boron nitride nanotubes include protection shields, electrical insulators and sensors. The main research company: the United States BNNT LLC., Wuhan Chemical New Materials Industrial Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd. and so on. 6. Lonsdale Stone Lonsdaleite 1510538375711659.jpg
Introduction: Lonsdale Stone was discovered by a US geologist Lonsdale in a crater and is defined as a hexagonal meteorite diamond. Like diamonds, they are made up of carbon atoms, but their carbon atoms are Arranged in different shapes, after simulation experiments, the compressive capacity of Lonsdale stones is 58% higher than that of diamonds. 7. Diamond Diamond 1510538397776465.jpg Introduction: Diamond is the hardest substance in many natural occurrences found on the earth. It is an allotrope of carbon. The hardness of diamond is the tenth grade of Morse hardness, and the microhardness is 10000kg/mm2, which is 1000 times higher than quartz and 150 times higher than corundum. Development trend: Diamond is widely used in industry, mainly in diamond tools, diamond die for wire drawing die, diamond drill bit. For more than ten years, the enterprises that produce diamond tools in China have developed rapidly, and the annual sales revenue growth rate is as high as 15%. The main research companies: Japan Fujiwar, Tyrolit, Saint Gobain, Sandvik, Japan to friends, Yellow River whirlwind, Yu Diamond, Sifangda and so on. 8. Aerogel Aerogel 1510538420320414.jpg

Introduction: Aerogel aerogel is a solid form of matter, the world's smallest solid. The density is 3kg/m3. The aerogel looks like a "weak wind" and is actually very strong and durable. It can withstand pressures thousands of times its own mass and melts when the temperature reaches 1200 degrees Celsius. Trends: Aerogels show many unique properties in the fields of thermal, optical, electrical, mechanical and acoustics. They can be used as thermal insulation materials, ICF and X-ray laser targets, catalysts, adsorbents, various electronic devices, etc. Excellent performance materials. Major research companies and institutions: BASF, Germany, University of Würzburg, Germany, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Montpellier Materials Research Center, Nano Technology Co., Ltd., ordering Elisheng High-tech Technology Co., Ltd., Hongdae Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. 9. Silicon Carbide Silicon Carbide 1510538442413879.jpg
Introduction: Silicon carbide is a natural mineral Moissanite in nature, or it is made by high temperature smelting of quartz sand, petroleum coke (or coal char), wood chips and other raw materials through an electric resistance furnace. Silicon carbide has a high hardness and a Mohs hardness of 9.5. It is second only to the world's hardest diamond. It has excellent thermal conductivity and is a kind of semiconductor. It can resist oxidation at high temperature. Development trend: As a typical representative of third-generation semiconductor materials, silicon carbide is favored by downstream semiconductor companies. Power electronic devices fabricated using silicon carbide single crystal substrates and epitaxial materials can work in high voltage and high frequency environments, and performance advantages. Outstanding, the industry has broad prospects. Major research companies and institutions: Silicon Carbide Products Inc., Cree, Hebei Tongguang Crystal Co., Ltd., Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen Xinguang Runze Technology Co., Ltd., etc. 10. Darwin's dark spider Darwin'sdark spider 1510538502120192.jpg
Introduction: It is reported that scientists found a new spider species, Darwin's spider, on Madagascar, which can weave the world's largest and most solid spider web. This spider has a spider web width of 25 meters, which is the strongest research ever. Biomaterial, 10 times the strength of Kevlar fiber of the same size. The world's most expensive top ten materials 1. Antimatter profile: Antimatter, in particle physics is composed of anti-particles, anti-particles are any particles of the same mass but opposite charges. Antimatter and matter are opposite, just like the combination of particles and antiparticles, causing both to annihilate and release high-energy photons or gamma rays. Producing 1 gram of antimatter would require 2,500 trillion kWh of energy and more than $1 trillion in cost, so it's not hard to imagine how rare artificial antimatter is. Uses: Antimatter is the most ideal spacecraft energy. According to calculation, a salt particle size of 10 mg antiproton can produce the equivalent of 200 tons of chemical fuel. 2. Embedded fullerenes Endohedral Fullerenes 100 million pounds / gram Introduction: Inlaid fullerene was first discovered in 1985, is a spherical carbon nanostructure, composed of 60 atoms a compact fullerene cage, inside Contains non-metallic elements or simple molecules such as nitrogen, phosphorus and antimony. The production, separation, purification and storage processes are extremely difficult, making them expensive. Uses: At present, scientists are studying the possibility of using inlaid fullerenes for atomic clocks, which can be applied to vehicle positioning systems to greatly improve GPS positioning accuracy. Major research companies and institutions: Oxford University (Oxford Carbon Materials Design Company), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking University, etc. 3. 锎Californium 27 million US dollars / gram Description: 锎 (Californium) is a radioactive metal element, belonging to the lanthanide element, is the sixth highest quality of the self-generated elements of the artificially synthesized super uranium. Uses: Isotope 锎-252 can be used for neutron distance therapy to treat cancer patients. Because it can only receive mild radiation reactions locally, the treatment effect is better than the widely used radiotherapy. 4. 氚Tritium 30,000 US dollars / gram Introduction: rit (Tritium), also known as super heavy hydrogen, is one of the isotopes of hydrogen, its nucleus consists of a proton and two neutrons, with radioactivity, beta decay. There are very few cockroaches in nature, which are generally produced from nuclear reactions, so the cost is high. Uses: Germanium and its labeled compounds play an important role in military, industrial, hydrological, geological and scientific research fields. 5. Tafite Taaffeite 2000~150,000 USD/g Introduction: Taaffeite is one of the rare gem minerals in the world, named after its discoverer Richard Taaffe (1898-1967), he was in October 1945. The first sample was found at a jewelry store in Dublin, Ireland. Most of the stones were mistaken for spinel before they were found. Use: Because it is known only in a few known samples, it is very rare. Currently only used as a gem. 6. Red beryl Bixbite 9000~137500 USD/g Description: Red beryl is a rare precious gem found in the United States in 1974. The color is dark red, light red and orange red, sometimes almost ruby ​​red or purple red sapphire gemstone, the color is caused by manganese and trace lithium, and the chromatic color is like ruby. Uses: mainly used as gemstones. 7. 钚Plutonium (99.95% Pu-242) 1.5 million US dollars / gram Introduction: 钚 is a radioactive element, is an important raw material for the atomic energy industry. Uses: can be used as a fissile agent for nuclear fuel and nuclear weapons. The atomic bomb that was put into Nagasaki City used the 内核 to make the core part. It is also a source of heat for radioisotope thermal motors. 8. Gold Gold $37.03/g Description: Gold is a simple form of the chemical element gold (Au), a soft, golden yellow, corrosion-resistant precious metal. Today, the world's mineral gold is about 2,600 tons per year. Uses: Gold is not only a special currency for reserves and investment, but also an important material for the jewelry, electronics, modern communications, aerospace and other sectors. 9. Platinum Platinum 31.78 US dollars / gram Description: Platinum (Platinum) is a naturally occurring white precious metal, ductile, can be pulled into a very fine platinum wire, rolled into a very thin platinum foil. It is extremely stable in chemical properties, insoluble in strong acid and alkali solution, and does not oxidize in air. Platinum is thirty times more rare than gold and can only be mined in very few places around the world. Uses: In the jewelry industry, mainly used as decorations and crafts. In the chemical industry, it is used to make advanced chemical vessels, platinum rhodium, electrodes, and catalysts that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions. Platinum-rhodium alloy is the material used to make the tip of a fountain pen. Especially in the automotive industry, platinum has an irreplaceable role in tail gas treatment, and its consumption accounts for almost half of the platinum industry. 10. 铑 Rhodium $ 24.73 / gram Description: 铑, element symbol Rh, from the Greek rhodon, meaning "rose", is a silver-white, hard metal, and has a high reflectivity. It is present in platinum ore and is obtained by refining. It is chemically stable and resistant to most common acids (including aqua regia) at moderate temperatures. Uses: 铑 can be used to manufacture hydrogenation catalysts, thermocouples, platinum-rhodium alloys, etc. (Note: The above material price deadline: Antimatter: September 2014; embedded fullerenes: December 2015; 锎: 1950; 氚: 2003; Tafi Stone: October 2016; red beryl: May 2016; 钚: 2008; Gold: January 1, 2017; Platinum: January 1, 2017; 铑: January 1, 2017) The world's top ten melting point materials 1. Carbonized bismuth Introduction of Alloy Ta4HfC5 (3990 °C) : The niobium carbide alloy actually refers to a five-carbon tetraruthenium compound, which is the highest melting point of the compounds currently known. It can be considered to consist of two binary compounds of lanthanum carbide (melting point 3893 ° C) and niobium carbide (melting point 3928 ° C). Uses: Used as heat-resistant and high-strength materials for rockets and jet engines, as well as parts for control and adjustment equipment. 2. Graphite Graphite (3652 °C) Introduction: Graphite is an allotrope of elemental carbon. The periphery of each carbon atom is connected with three other carbon atoms (multiple hexagons arranged in a honeycomb pattern). The valence bond combines to form a covalent molecule. Due to its special structure, it has high temperature resistance, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, lubricity, chemical stability, plasticity and so on. Uses: Traditionally used as refractory materials, conductive materials, wear-resistant lubricating materials, as well as casting, sanding, compression molding and high temperature metallurgical materials, new use as flexible graphite sealing materials, automotive batteries, new composite materials. Major research companies: Northern Graphite, Alabama Graphite Corp., Superior Graphite, Jilin Carbon Co., Ltd., Shanxi Jinneng Group Co., Ltd., Fangda Carbon. 3. Diamond Diamond (3550 °C) Introduction: Diamond is an atomic crystal, graphite is a mixed crystal, and the melting point of graphite crystal is higher than that of diamond. It seems unbelievable, but the bond length of the covalent bond in the graphite crystal layer is 1.42×10- At 10 m, the bond length of the covalent bond in the diamond crystal is 1.55 x 10-10 m. The same as the covalent bond, the smaller the bond length, the larger the bond energy, the stronger the bond, the more difficult it is to destroy it, and the more energy it needs to be, so the melting point should be higher. Uses: Cutting tools in handicrafts and industry, such as wire drawing dies, turning tools, knives, hardness testers, geological and petroleum drill bits, grinding wheel knives, glass knives, diamond pens, dresser knives and abrasives, etc. Elementsix Company of the United Kingdom, Diamond Innovation of the United States, IL Jin Company of South Korea, KGI Diamond Group of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou Huajing Diamond Co., Ltd., etc. 4. Tungsten Tungsten (3400 °C) Description: Tungsten is a steel gray or silver-white metal with high hardness, high melting point and no air erosion at normal temperature. It is used as the highest melting point refractory metal (generally a metal with a melting point higher than 1650 ° C) and has good high temperature strength. Uses: mainly used in the manufacture of filament and high speed cutting alloy steel, super hard mold, also used in optical instruments, chemical instruments. 5. Zirconium diboride ZrB2 (3245 ° C) Introduction: ZrB2 (ZrB2) is a highly covalent refractory ceramic material with hexagonal crystal structure. Its ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) has a melting point of 3246oC and a high melting point. , relatively low density (about 6.09g / cm 3) and good high temperature strength.
Uses: Can be used in high temperature aerospace applications (such as supersonic flight or rocket propulsion systems).
6. TiB2 diboride (3225 ° C) Description: Titanium diboride (TiB2) is gray or grayish black with hexagonal (AlB2) crystal structure. It has high hardness and excellent thermal conductivity, oxidative stability and mechanical corrosion resistance as ceramics. Uses: TiB2 is a reasonable electrical conductor that can be used as a cathode material in aluminum smelting. 7. Introduction to Rhenium (3180 ° C) : Bismuth is a metal element, one of the high melting point metals, the same appearance as platinum, soluble in dilute nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide solution, insoluble in hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. It can be oxidized to a very stable bismuth oxyhydroxide Re2O7, which is a special property of bismuth. Uses: It can be used to make electric filaments, shells for satellites and rockets, protective plates for atomic reactors, etc. 8. Titanium Carbide TiC (3100 ° C) Description: Titanium carbide (TiC) is an extremely hard (Mohrs hardness of 9-9.5) refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide. It is a metallic gray iron-gray crystal and belongs to the sodium chloride type face-centered cubic crystal structure. It has a high melting point, boiling point and hardness, as well as good thermal and electrical conductivity, and even exhibits superconductivity at very low temperatures. Uses: Widely used in the manufacture of cermets, heat resistant alloys, hard alloys, anti-wear materials, high temperature radiation materials and other high temperature vacuum devices. 9. Introduction to Osmium (3045 °C) : 锇 is a group VIII element of the sixth cycle of the periodic table, one of the members of the platinum group metal, belonging to the heavy platinum group metal, and is the most dense metal currently known. The metal ruthenium is very stable in the air, and the powdery ruthenium is easily oxidized. Uses: 锇 can be used to make ultra-high hardness alloys, alloys of bismuth, antimony, bismuth or platinum, often used as bearings in record players, fountain pens and watches and instruments. 10. Description of Silicon Carbide SiC (2820 °C) : Silicon carbide (SiC) is made by using high temperature smelting of electric furnaces such as quartz sand, petroleum coke (or coal char), wood chips (requires salt when green silicon carbide is produced). Uses: Silicon carbide particles can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics, which are widely used in applications requiring high durability, such as ceramic plates in automotive brakes, automotive clutches and bulletproof vests.

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